Caracterização molecular de Panstrongylus Megistus Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera:Reduvidae: Triatominae) do Estado do Paraná, mediante sequenciamento de marcadores de DNA Ribossomal Nuclear
Cavassin, Francelise Bridi
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Resumo: Chagas. disease or American Trypanosomiasis has the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as the etiologic agent. The disease is present in most Latin American countries and its control relies mainly on the fight against triatomine vectors. Among the triatomine species found in Brazil, Panstrongylus megistus shows a high degree of adaptability to the domestic environment and is considered of great epidemiological importance since Triatoma infestans elimination. This work had as the main objective, through the sequencing of nuclear ribosomal DNA markers, the molecular characterization of specimens and populations of Panstrongylus megistus from Parana state. Specimens from other states were also included in this study. From all of the 37 specimens submitted to DNA extraction and sequencing, 32 sequences could be analyzed for two selected markers in question - the first and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Overall, 24 different haplotypes were identified among the analyzed specimens of Panstrongylus megistus, when studied molecular markers ITS-1 and ITS-2 together. The intergenic region length varied between 1357 and 1366 base pairs, with an average of 1361.1 base pairs. The overall length of the alignment for all haplotypes was described with 1366 bp, including insertions/deletions. ITS-1 showed a greater length in its base pairs, as well a greater diversity of haplotypes mainly due to numerous insertions/deletions. Because of this, ITS-2 fragment landed more information for the haplotypes distribution analysis. It was detected a greater number of haplotypes in insects from the first plateau of Parana. This greater diversity supports the origin and dispersion hypothesis of Panstrongylus megistus from .Mata Atlantica. coastal. At the second plateau was observed only 2 haplotypes, which are coincident with the first plateau. At the third plateau was attended of 4 haplotypes, 3 of them different from others, and only 1 haplotype not found in other states. The CH-2 haplotype was found in all studied Parana regions, as well as the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Sergipe. This can be appointed, until this moment, as the haplotype that probably began spreading the specie, at Parana state, from the endemism center. The increase of insects. numbers studied and the use of new molecular markers may get relevant information to reinforce the specie origin and dispersal theory and provide data to assist in epidemiological monitoring of these vectors.
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