A otimizaçao dos custos do transporte rodoviário de madeira roliça oriunda de reflorestamento
Leite, José Geraldo Maderna, 1945-
MetadadosMostrar registro completo
AssuntoMadeira - Transporte - Brasil
Madeira - Transporte - Custos
Transporte rodoviario de carga
This work has as main objective to minimize the costs of the transports is the crop of reforestations, giving emphasis to the operational aspects for the definition d the characteristics techniques of the highways. For that, so much ref&riig particularities are approached to the vehicles as to the highways. In the revision & the literature and methods seven mais items are considered: 1) definition of lhe transport volumes, in other words, of the demand; 2)operational aspects; 3)definition of the transport vehicle; 4)costs of operation of Ioad vehicles; 5)planning, construction and conservation of the roads; 6)studies of economical viability and 7)environmental and social aspects including the driver& characteristics. These items are used to obtain the minimum transport costs, defining the type of more appropriate vehicle; miminum path to be accomplished by loaded and empty vehicles as well as the constructive improvements and of conservation of the road system that provide the largest economical earnings. The choice of the alternatives of improvements of the road system is related with the accomplishment of the forest transport in an optimized way. The methodologies and selected practices are applied in the reduction of the total costs of transport, existent in the wood crop, in two case studies, in areas reforested located in the south of Bahia and in the area of the plateau north catarinense. The application of the HDM III (The Highway Design and Maintenance Standards Model) Metodology is verified by the calculation of operation costs for ten types of compositions of load vehicles, used in the transport of reforested wood; different conditions are simulate for inclinations of ramps, rays õf horizontal curves and conditions of surface of the roads given by IRI (International Rougness Index) . ln the study of the demand, the methodology of the model of four stages is considered (generation, distribution, modal split and allocation); being applied to the transports forest methods used in general for transports. The constructive characteristics of the roads define the costs of operation of the types of vehicles, in this way it is possible to optimize the choice of the vehicle and the route for the transport. The techniques of accomplishment of the transports, including the definition of the road segments to be improved, the types of vehicles and aspects of economical Hfe are considered due to they mportance in the total costs. lt is verified that the benefits of the use of the methodologies proposed by the forest companies consist of 1) definition of the demand of the transport of reforested wood, 2) calculation of the costs of operation of the vehicles, 3) choice among alternatives of types of vehicles, 4) definition of optimized routes and 5) definition of the priority places for implantation of improvements in the forest highways. Being used the proposed methodologies, the actívities of forest transport in reforestations, present smaller total costs, since the operation costs are considered together with the construction costs and of conservation. Besides, the section of transports forest can know the possible earnings of their activities, what facilitates the obtaining of resources and the valorization of their works.
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